Other research showed Tax Increment Financing (TIF) schemes were used in Chicago city regeneration, with the intention of decreasing blight and creating jobs, (even if not in the TIF area?) but also drained funding from schools and other urban social infrastructure. The lack of localism in the programme seemed to work against its effectiveness.
A UTM Curtin study tour investigating 'vibrancy' in the new cities Cyberjaya and Putrajaya in Malaysia suggests these centres seem to have almost dispensed with the old idea of the street. The new Malaysian urban culture here is car and road based, segregated, along a multi-media development corridor with sparsely located iconic buildings. On counts such as walkability, cycleability, interconnectivity and transit orientation, the urbanism was considered lacking, although for the benefit of international 'direct investment' the area is located near the KLIA International Airport.